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Fire Operations
by Fred LaFemina

Cold Climate Challenges

Editor's note: What are your tips for operating in winter? What are the problems your department encounters? Share your thoughts and experiences in the FireRescue1 Forums or the Member Comments section at the end of this article.   


AP Photo/Mark Duncan
Olmsted Falls, Ohio, firefighter Glen Eisenhardt clears snow from a hydrant in February this year.

Winter weather periods of rain, freezing surfaces and snowfall can cause a multitude of problems for firefighters.

Freezing conditions can affect response and water supply, and present operating hazards. Heavy and sometimes even minor snowfalls can hamper operations and may present the need for additional equipment and alternate procedures. In addition, water supply can be affected by hydrants that are blocked by snow or even frozen.

It's of utmost importance to have your apparatus ready for these conditions and well before when winter is already upon you or you encounter your first freezing temperatures. You must be pro-active and implement a system of equipment procurement and apparatus maintenance that anticipate these conditions. Having a plan in advance and starting the process way ahead of its actual need can go some way toward mitigating against problems.

Each department should contact other agencies in their areas to establish procedures where assistance will be needed to conduct fire and emergency operations. The agency responsible for snow removal whoever it may be must be involved in your winter operations standard operating procedures. Priorities for snow removal should be fire station streets and the primary streets used for response. Critical hazard areas such as hospitals, nursing homes, child care centers and any designated target hazards should be on the list, too.

Traffic control
The local police should also be actively involved in these types of operations. They could assist by having abandoned vehicles removed, controlling traffic during operations and closing streets for emergency responses.

A list of other agencies and private entities that could assist should be kept by the chief and available to anyone who may need their assistance. Other issues the chief should consider are identifying primary response routes requiring snow removal and other sites in the area that can stage emergency units if necessary. Additional equipment and apparatus could be assembled and additional personnel placed in service during these weather-related emergencies as well.

Extra hose, hydrant and water supply appliances as well as shovels should be carried on appliances during winter. This additional equipment would allow any apparatus to put a hand line in operations, which may be necessary due to anticipated delays in response. Imagine you are a truck company on the scene without an engine, and immediate water is needed to save or protect a life. With the additional equipment, a ladder company could possibly contain the fire or even extinguish it.

Fire stations should keep a supply of sand or salt for use and also smaller containers of these products on each apparatus. A sufficient amount of shovels should also be kept to help keep the front of the fire station clear, while a shovel should also be carried on each apparatus. Also, remember to discontinue the use of water in quarters to prevent icing of the apparatus floor or the apron of quarters.

Apparatus and appliances such as pumps, tower ladder pipes, deck-pipes and manifolds should always be drained after use and if possible at each shift change. When responding, be wary of the apparatus sliding and steep hills that are slippery or iced; they should traversed with caution. A good tip I learned is that if you have a defective booster tank that leaks, allow a hose in quarters to slowly drip into the tank. This will ensure a full booster tank of water when you respond and it may actually be your only water source available at the fire scene. Make sure that it does not overflow as this may cause a slippery condition, resulting in icing.

Additional good tips to remember at the scene of a fire or emergency during these operations are:

  • Extend your search for the fire or emergency after you arrive on the scene. Conditions may not be obvious upon your arrival or no one may be present on the scene to guide you to the location. Some buildings may be tightly closed up, hiding evidence of fire.
  • Always test hydrants before using them to ensure they are not frozen.
  • During intermittent line operations, you should crack the nozzle to have a slight flow of water to prevent freezing.
  • Place water extinguishers inside the apparatus to prevent freezing.
  • Drain and replace your hose as soon as conditions permit.
  • Lash or butt ladders you are planning to use to prevent slipping.

All fire departments need to develop severe weather and snow emergency procedures. Triggers for implementation should also be integrated into the plan. The preparation of operations and equipment procurement should occur months prior to using or implementing them. Remember, it's always better to prepare in advance.

  Discuss this article at FireRescue1 Forums

About the author


Chief Fred LaFemina is a 21 year veteran of the FDNY. He is presently assigned to the FDNYs Rescue Operations Battalion No. 1 as the battalion commander. He has been with special operations for more than 16 years. He is also the task force leader on NY-TF1s Urban Search & Rescue Team and has deployed to a number of disasters. He is also a member of the Rescue Working Group nationally for the USAR Program and a backup member of the Incident Support Team.

Please feel free to email Chief LaFemina at Fred.LaFemina@FireRescue1.com.




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